Map Scale

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Choosing the right map scale for a project is not difficult in most cases.
However, it can quickly become complicated depending on the requirements.
And it’s even more complicated to change the scale of existing projects.
Therefore, it’s worthwhile to make the right settings right from the start.

Principles

Intended purpose

At the beginning of a project, think about what purpose you are pursuing with it. What kind of map is it? Which scales do you need? How should the map be printed? What kind of competition will be held on it?

Symbol Sets

The OCAD symbol sets are based on the specifications of the International Orienteering Federation (IOF).
Every symbol set is intended for a specific scale.
For an orienteering map at a scale of 1:10'000, it is best to choose the symbol set Orienteering Map ISOM 2017 10 000.ocd

MapScale OrienteeringMap.png

The different symbol sets that are used in orienteering sports can be ssen on the Symbol Set Overview page.

Symbolsatz ISOM2017-2.png

Change Scale

If a different scale as usual is to be selected, the size of the symbols can be adjusted with the function Scale Symbol. Depending on the new map scale, Scale Symbol will enlarge/reduce the symbols with the same factor as the map. When the box is checked, the map is enlarged/reduced like a photographic enlargement. When this box is not checked, the map is enlarged/reduced, but the symbols are kept in the same dimension.

Scale Symbol has the same functionality as Enlarge/reduce symbols.

ChangeScale.PNG

Define the correct settings at the beginning of a project and then try not to change them. With the function Change Scale this could be done afterwards, but can quickly lead to errors and a lot of work. Additionally, accuracy is lost with every conversion to a certain degree.

Printing Maps

Due to color display, we recommend that you always create a PDF from OCAD first and then print this PDF. Go to Export Files (File>Export or Ctrl+E) to export your map as a PDF.

ColorDisplay.png

Map Scales for a Mapping Project

Forest Maps

ISOM 2017 about Scale

  • The base scale for an orienteering map is 1:15 000.
  • Generalization shall follow the requirements for the scale 1:15 000.
  • When a map is enlarged, all lines, symbols and screens shall be enlarged proportionally (for the map scale 1:10 000 this means to 150%). This also applies to the course planning symbols.
  • Enlargement to the scale 1:10 000 is always recommended for the youngest age groups where the capacity of reading complex maps is not fully developed.

Forest Map in Scale 1:15'000, 1:10'000 and 1:7’500

The two methods below will give you the same result.

Map Scale 1:10'000, Print Scale 1:10’000
Map Scale 1:15’000, Print Scale 1:10’000

MapScale PrintScale.png

The same is true for print scale 1:15’000. The two methods below will give you the same result.

Map Scale 1:10'000, Print Scale 1:15’000
Map Scale 1:15’000, Print Scale 1:15’000

In ISOM 2017, nothing is said about scale 1:7’500. However, this scale is used more and more for even better map reading than scale 1:10’000. We recommend to enlarge 1:7’500 symbols also proportionally to the 1:15’000 scale, this means to 200%.

Therefore, the three methods below will give you the same result .

Map Scale 1:7'500, Print Scale 1:7’500
Map Scale 1:10'000, Print Scale 1:7’500
Map Scale 1:15’000, Print Scale 1:7’500

It is recommended to choose the map scale that is used most often for printing.

Sprint Maps

ISSprOM 2019 about Scale

  • The map scale shall be 1:4 000.
  • When a map is enlarged, all lines, symbols and screens shall be enlarged proportionally. This also applies to the course planning symbols.
  • Enlargement to the scale 1:3 000 is always recommended for the youngest age groups where the capacity of reading complex maps is not fully developed.

Sprint Map in Scale 1:4'000 and 1:3'000

The Symbol Set for Sprint Orienteering Maps is only available in scale 1:4'000. If you like to start a Map in scale 1:3'000, you need to choose 1:3'000 as a map scale and check Scale Symbols.

MapScale NewMap.png

You can also draw the map at a scale of 1:4'000 and simply print it out at a scale of 3'000. The result is the same.

It is recommended to choose the map scale that is used most often for printing.

School Orienteering Maps

School Orienteering Maps and Scale

The Symbol Set for School Orienteering Maps is meant for scales 1:1000 to 1:2500. The basis for the symbol set for school orienteering maps is the ISSprOM 2019. All symbols of ISSprOM 2019 have been enlarged to 125% and 6 additional symbols have been added.

School Map in Scale 1:1'000 to 1:2'500

For School Maps at a scale of 1:1'000 to 1:2'500, choose the desired map scale and do not Scale Symbols. The symbol set for School Orienteering Maps is a recommendation and not a specification as the ISOM 2017 for forest maps and the ISSprOM2019 for sprint maps. This means that symbols can be changed or added as needed without a guilty conscience.

Map Scales for a Course Setting Project

MapScale Example.png

General

At some competitions it's common to have different scales for different age groups.

There are several ways to do so.

Most important appear and the following points.

  • Clarify early on who is responsible for what (course setter, controller, map maker, ...)
  • Define a workflow according to the needs and possibilities.
  • Test in advance early the selected workflow.

Example: Long Distance competition with three different scales

1:15'000 for Elite and Junior classes.
1:7'500 for Veterans older than 60 and kids younger than 12.
1:10'000 for all other categories.

Here's one of many possible ways how to deal with it:

MapScale DifferentScalesCS.png

Work with just ONE [Course Setting File] and ONE [Map File] to avoid errors.

  • Step 1: Open your 1:15’000 [Map File]. There should not be any kind of layout in this map, just the map itself.
  • Step 2: Create three different [Layout Files].
Open a new 1:15’000 symbol set.
Load the [Map File] 1:15’000 as Background Map.
Create the layout, which fits for this map. Add Title, Texts, Logos, North Arrows. You can also cover parts with a color.
Save the file as [Layout 1:15’000]
Go to Map>Change Scale. Enter 22’500 as new scale and do Enlarge/reduce symbols.
Go to Map>Set Scale and Coordinate System and change the scale back to 1:15’000.
Adjust the layout objects, so it fits again to the map.
Save the file as [Layout 1:10’000]
Open again the [Layout 1:15’000 File].
Go to Map>Change Scale. Enter 30’000 as new scale and do Enlarge/reduce symbols.
Go to Map>Set Scale and Coordinate System and change the scale back to 1:15’000.
Adjust the layout objects, so it fits again to the map.
Save the file as [Layout 1:7’500]
  • Step 3: Start a [Course Setting Project] at a scale of 1:15’000. As a background map, choose all three [Layout Files]. Set only one [Layout File] visible at once. The [Layout Files] themselves have all the same [[Map File] 15’000 loaded as a background map
  • Step 4: Export PDF from your Courses. Depending on the Course, you may set a different [Layout File] visible as Background map. You may need to adjust the [Layout Files], so they fit all to the same Export size.
  • Step 5: As a result, you have the same courses on the same map with the same Layout at three different scales.